Tuesday, May 25, 2010

Theme and character of robinson crusoe

Robinson Crusoe, narrated in the first person, is dominated by the title character. The other major character, Friday, appears after two-thirds of the narrative has been told.

Crusoe is adventurous by nature. Against his father’s “serious and excellent counsel,” Crusoe embarks on the seafaring career that he feels will satisfy his “wandering inclination.” Even late in life, after his return to England, where he marries and has three children and is later widowed, Crusoe once again heads out to sea for another long voyage that takes him to China.

Robinson Crusoe’s character is a study in contradictions. He is by turns an ardent capitalist and an introspective Christian; a wanderer attracted to adventure and a civilized Englishman who creates a cozy dwelling for himself; a believer in the dignity of the human being and a slave trader. Defoe portrays these contradictions as typical characteristics of a middle-class English Protestant tradesman of the period.

By contrast, Friday, a native of an island close to Crusoe’s, is depicted as a savage-a reformed cannibal. Crusoe sees Friday as his “faithful, loving, sincere servant”; in fact, the first English word Crusoe teaches Friday to say is “Master.”

Many of the important themes in Robinson Crusoe are embodied in the title character and in his interaction with Friday. Through the story of Crusoe’s sojourn on the island, Defoe comments at length on several social and philosophical concepts. The novel is an allegory for a progression from spiritual alienation to salvation in that Crusoe’s life moves from rebellion to punishment to conversion and finally to deliverance. But Robinson Crusoe is also an economic document, with its focus on the taming of a wild environment, its portrayal of Crusoe as a man who keeps a careful record of his projects and crops, and its depiction of the colonial impulse in Crusoe’s education of Friday. Furthermore, Crusoe’s journal contains several passages in which he reflects on time and labor and the acquisition of material possessions.

Plot summary of robinson crusoe

Born in York

A retired German merchant named Kreutznaer settles in the York country where, due to the "usual corruption of words in England," the German name becomes Crusoe. In York, Mr. Crusoe marries a woman whose surname is Robinson.

Robinson Crusoe, born in 1632, is their third child. Early on, Crusoe's father determines that his son will become a lawyer. Unfortunately, Crusoe "would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea." His mother and father do not allow it.

To London and Trade

A year later Crusoe sneaks away and accepts passage to London. He leaves on September 1, 1651. During a terrible storm, he promises to return home to his parents. Yet after the ship sinks, he forgets his promise. Instead, he goes to London and befriends the captain of a vessel bound for Guinea. He joins the voyage.

After a successful voyage, Crusoe resolves to make another journey with his friend. Yet after his friend suddenly dies, he gives most of his money to the captain's widow, invests some money, buys trade goods with the remainder, and takes the same ship for another voyage. On the way to Guinea, Moorish pirates seize the ship and he is forced to become a slave.

Two years later, Crusoe escapes in a fishing boat with the slave boy Xury. They sail down the "Barbarian Coast" of West Africa. Finally, just off the Cape Verde Islands, a Portuguese ship bound for Brazil rescues them. With Xury's consent, he sells him along with the boat's inventory to the ship's master.

Deciding to make his fortune in the area, Crusoe purchases a slave and a Brazilian sugar plantation. He enjoys moderate success with the new venture. A bit restless, he becomes interested in leading a slave expedition to Africa. So, at the "evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659," he embarks for Guinea; tragically, a hurricane wrecks the vessel on a sand bar and only Crusoe survives.

"the Island of Despair"

Crusoe is shocked to find himself on the deserted island. His shock gives way to jubilation and thanksgiving for his survival. However, when he realizes the serious nature of his dilemma, he runs around in shock, paranoia, and fear. He finally falls asleep in a tree gripping a stick.

Crusoe spends several days cannibalizing the shipwreck for materials and provisions. With these salvaged goods, he begins to establish a fort — which he calls his "castle" — where he rules over a dog, some cats, and a parrot. He keeps a record of time, but after his ink runs out, he cannot maintain his journal.

Reviewing his life, he realizes that he has been selfish and cruel. He repents and resolves to lead a virtuous life. His days are filled with exploring the island, improving his castle, domesticating goats, experimenting with pottery, and developing other skills necessary for self-sufficiency.

Having secured shelter and food, Crusoe makes a boat. He constructs a small one, but he is nearly swept out to sea by dangerous currents. He uses the boat only for transportation to other parts of the island.

After twelve years, Crusoe nearly dies of fright over "the print of a man's naked foot on the shore." In a flurry of self-preservation, he expands his fortifications. He also discovers human bones and signs of cannibalism. Eleven years later, he witnesses a cannibal feast. A Spanish ship wrecks off the coast and Crusoe is able to salvage some provisions from the wreck.

The End of Solitude

One night, in his twenty-fourth year on the island, he dreams of saving one of the cannibals and civilizing him. Eighteen months later, on a Friday, his dream comes true. The savage falls at Crusoe's feet out of gratitude. Crusoe calls him Friday, and teaches him important English words like "Master," "Yes," and "No."

Gradually, Friday becomes civilized, converts to Christianity, and adopts English habits. Friday tells Crusoe about the Spanish castaways living with his tribe on the mainland. Crusoe begins work on a bigger boat to bring the Spaniards to his island.

In the twenty-seventh year, cannibals hostile to Friday's tribe (along with a few of their captives) visit the island. One of the captives is a European, so Crusoe and Friday attack the cannibals to free the captive: Crusoe shoots several of them and the rest of the cannibals flee. One of the captives turns out to be Friday's father. With people to help and good advice, Crusoe expands his agricultural production.

On the condition that they accept Crusoe's leadership, the Spaniard and Friday's father leave to fetch the rest of the Spaniards. Meanwhile, a group of English mutineers lands on the island to dispose of their captain and his loyal officers. Crusoe and Friday rescue them, capture the mutineers, and take back the ship.

The mutineers choose to stay on the island as Crusoe's subjects rather than return for punishment in England. Crusoe takes Friday to England as honored guests of the rescued English captain.

Back to Civilization

After an absence of twenty-eight years, Crusoe returns London in June, 1687. After the English captain gives him a reward, Crusoe learns that his parents are dead.

Crusoe discovers that he is rich because of some previous investments. After rewarding those who served him faithfully and selling his plantation, he returns to London.

Back in London, he marries and fathers three children. After his wife dies, he embarks on a final journey. On the way back, he visits his colony, which is thriving.

Thursday, May 20, 2010


Woodpeckers make their nests and food stores by pecking holes in trees. The speed at which a woodpecker bores into a tree with its bill is approximately 40 km/hour (25 miles/hour). This, in fact, is an extraordinary speed that could have damaged the woodpecker. However, there is a special locking system in the bird's beak so that it does not sustain injury. If this special system did not exist, the woodpecker's beak would crack in two because of the high speed. Besides, if the impact of the stroke went directly to the brain, then the bird would lose consciousness. Yet, such a thing never happens since Allah created the bird together with what it needs. The woodpecker's brain is placed at the same level as its beak. Muscles on the lower part of the beak act like "shock absorbers" and reduce the shock that occurs while boring into the tree.

What we have mentioned so far are only a few of the general characteristics of woodpeckers. Apart from those mentioned, every woodpecker species has many characteristics peculiar to itself. Now let's consider a kind of woodpecker that hides acorns in trees.

Throughout summer, the acorn woodpecker bores "holes" in a dead tree trunk because at the end of the summer it will fill these holes with acorns, on which it will feed during winter. Acting like a hammer, it drives one acorn in each hole. This takes a great deal of the woodpecker's time because it tries to find the acorn that fits exactly into the hole it has bored. If the hole is big and the acorn is small, then the loose acorn will easily be taken by other birds. If the hole is smaller than the acorn, then the acorn will be damaged while it is being forced into the hole. Therefore, it takes some time for the woodpecker to place acorns by trial and error.

A woodpecker that stores acorns in the holes in the trunk of an oak (top left) and another woodpecker species (right).

Yet there is even more that a woodpecker needs to do. As acorns dry over time they become smaller. This means that the woodpecker should replace dry acorns with fresh ones.

It should also be noted that the woodpecker does not merely store 5 to 10 acorns; an acorn woodpecker can stock approximately 50,000 acorns in a big tree.

Reflecting upon these interesting characteristics, we understand that there is a superior Power Who teaches all these things to woodpeckers. This power is Allah. Allah created the beaks of woodpeckers strong enough to drill bark. It is Allah Who taught them everything they do. There is no other god and creator besides Allah. Allah informs us that He created everything:

That is Allah, your Lord. There is no god but Him, the Creator of everything. So worship Him. He is responsible for everything. (Surat al-An'am: 102)

A horse walks into a bar

A horse walks into a bar, he sits down and the bartender asks him, "Why the long face?" The second horse walks in with jumper cables attached to it's head, he sits down, and the bartender says, "I don't mind the long face, but don't u go and try to start anything!

Tuesday, May 11, 2010



Reasoning or explaining from parallel cases. A simile is an expressed analogy; a metaphor is an implied one. Adjective: analogous. See also:

idioms expression

Examples of Idiomatic Expressions in English and American language
The following is a list of Idiomatic Expressions used in the English and American language:

  • " Between a rock and a hard place " Meaning - In a very difficult situation when any resolution will be unpleasant

  • " Blow your top " Meaning - To lose your temper

  • " Break a leg " Meaning - Used to wish good luck to stage performers before an opening

  • " By

  • " Drop someone a line " Meaning - To write to someone

  • " Excuse my French " Meaning - An apology for swearing

  • " Fire someone " Meaning - To end someone's your employment

  • " Get your wires crossed " Meaning - A misunderstanding

  • " Have an axe to grind " Meaning - To have an ulterior motive or a long term grudge against someone

  • " Hit the sack " Meaning - To go to bed



Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. The Articlesa, an, and the — are adjectives.

  • the tall professor
  • the lugubrious lieutenant
  • a solid commitment
  • a month's pay
  • a six-year-old child
  • the unhappiest, richest man